The Paris Agreement, signed in 2015, is a global effort to combat climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. One of the key components of this agreement is the concept of nationally determined contributions (NDCs).

NDCs refer to each country`s commitment to reducing their own greenhouse gas emissions. Each country sets its own targets for reducing emissions, based on their own unique circumstances and capabilities. These targets are submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and are updated every five years.

The Paris Agreement recognizes that not all countries are equally responsible for climate change, nor do they have equal capabilities to address it. Therefore, NDCs are designed to be flexible and tailored to each country`s specific needs and circumstances. This allows for a more equitable and feasible approach to addressing climate change on a global scale.

NDCs can take a variety of forms, including policies, regulations, and investments in clean energy and infrastructure. They may also involve measures to adapt to the impacts of climate change, such as improving water management or building sea walls to protect against rising sea levels.

NDCs are not legally binding, but they are a critical component of the Paris Agreement. They provide a framework for collaboration and cooperation between countries, and hold them accountable for taking action to address climate change. They also offer a way for countries to share their experiences and learn from one another in the pursuit of a more sustainable future.

As of 2021, 191 countries have submitted NDCs to the UNFCCC, representing more than 96% of global greenhouse gas emissions. While these commitments are an important step in the right direction, experts warn that much more needs to be done to prevent catastrophic climate change. Meeting the targets laid out in NDCs will require significant investment, innovation, and collaboration between governments, businesses, and individuals around the world.

In conclusion, nationally determined contributions are a cornerstone of the Paris Agreement and a critical tool in the fight against climate change. By setting targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and taking concrete action to achieve them, countries are working together to build a more sustainable and resilient future for all.